Retinal Physician

JAN-FEB 2017

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Use with Anakinra Concurrent use of anakinra (an interleukin-1 antagonist) and another TNF- blocker, was associated with a greater proportion of serious infections and neutropenia and no added benefit compared with the TNF-blocker alone in patients with RA. Therefore, the combination of HUMIRA and anakinra is not recommended [see Drug Interactions]. Heart Failure Cases of worsening congestive heart failure (CHF) and new onset CHF have been reported with TNF blockers. Cases of worsening CHF have also been observed with HUMIRA. Exercise caution when using HUMIRA in patients who have heart failure and monitor them carefully. Autoimmunity Treatment with HUMIRA may result in the formation of autoantibodies and, rarely, in the development of a lupus-like syndrome. If a patient develops symptoms suggestive of a lupus-like syndrome following treatment with HUMIRA, discontinue treatment [see Adverse Reactions] . Immunizations In a placebo-controlled clinical trial of patients with RA, no difference was detected in anti-pneumococcal antibody response between HUMIRA and placebo treatment groups when the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine and influenza vaccine were administered concurrently with HUMIRA. Patients on HUMIRA may receive concurrent vaccinations, except for live vaccines. No data are available on the secondary transmission of infection by live vaccines in patients receiving HUMIRA. It is recommended that pediatric patients, if possible, be brought up to date with all immunizations in agreement with current immunization guidelines prior to initiating HUMIRA therapy. Patients on HUMIRA may receive concurrent vaccinations, except for live vaccines. The safety of administering live or live-attenuated vaccines in infants exposed to HUMIRA in utero is unknown. Risks and benefits should be considered prior to vaccinating (live or live-attenuated) exposed infants [see Use in Specific Populations] . Use with Abatacept In controlled trials, the concurrent administration of TNF-blockers and abatacept was associated with a greater proportion of serious infections than the use of a TNF-blocker alone; the combination therapy, compared to the use of a TNF-blocker alone, has not demonstrated improved clinical benefit in the treatment of RA. Therefore, the combination of abatacept with TNF- blockers including HUMIRA is not recommended [see Drug Interactions]. ADVERSE REACTIONS The most serious adverse reactions described elsewhere in the labeling include the following: • Serious Infections [see Warnings and Precautions] • Malignancies [see Warnings and Precautions] Clinical Trials Experience The most common adverse reaction with HUMIRA was injection site reactions. In placebo-controlled trials, 20% of patients treated with HUMIRA developed injection site reactions (erythema and/or itching, hemorrhage, pain or swelling), compared to 14% of patients receiving placebo. Most injection site reactions were described as mild and generally did not necessitate drug discontinuation. The proportion of patients who discontinued treatment due to adverse reactions during the double-blind, placebo-controlled portion of studies in patients with RA (i.e., Studies RA-I, RA-II, RA-III and RA-IV) was 7% for patients taking HUMIRA and 4% for placebo-treated patients. The most common adverse reactions leading to discontinuation of HUMIRA in these RA studies were clinical flare reaction (0.7%), rash (0.3%) and pneumonia (0.3%). Infections In the controlled portions of the 39 global HUMIRA clinical trials in adult patients with RA, PsA, AS, CD, UC, HS and UV, the rate of serious infections was 4.3 per 100 patient-years in 7973 HUMIRA-treated patients versus a rate of 2.9 per 100 patient-years in 4848 control-treated patients. Serious infections observed included pneumonia, septic arthritis, prosthetic and post-surgical infections, erysipelas, cellulitis, diverticulitis, and pyelonephritis [see Warnings and Precautions]. Tuberculosis and Opportunistic Infections In 52 global controlled and uncontrolled clinical trials in RA, PsA, AS, C D, UC, Ps, HS and UV that included 24,605 HUMIRA-treated patients, the rate of reported active tuberculosis was 0.20 per 100 patient-years and the rate of positive PPD conversion was 0.09 per 100 patient-years. In a subgroup of 10,113 U.S. and Canadian HUMIRA-treated patients, the rate of reported active TB was 0.05 per 100 patient-years and the rate of positive PPD conversion was 0.07 per 100 patient-years. These trials included reports of miliary, lymphatic, peritoneal, and pulmonary TB. Most of the TB cases occurred within the first eight months after initiation of therapy and may reflect recrudescence of latent disease. In these global clinical trials, cases of serious opportunistic infections have been reported at an overall rate of 0.05 per 100 patient-years. Some cases of serious opportunistic infections and TB have been fatal [see Warnings and Precautions] . Autoantibodies In the rheumatoid arthritis controlled trials, 12% of patients treated with HUMIRA and 7% of placebo-treated patients that had negative baseline ANA titers developed positive titers at week 24. Two patients out of 3046 treated with HUMIRA developed clinical signs suggestive of new-onset lupus-like syndrome. The patients improved following discontinuation of therapy. No patients developed lupus nephritis or central nervous system symptoms. The impact of long-term treatment with HUMIRA on the development of autoimmune diseases is unknown. Liver Enzyme Elevations There have been reports of severe hepatic reactions including acute liver failure in patients receiving TNF-blockers. In controlled Phase 3 trials of HUMIRA (40 mg SC every other week) in patients with RA, PsA, and AS with control period duration ranging from 4 to 104 weeks, ALT elevations ≥ 3 x ULN occurred in 3.5% of HUMIRA-treated patients and 1.5% of control- treated patients. Since many of these patients in these trials were also taking medications that cause liver enzyme elevations (e.g., NSAIDS, MTX), the relationship between HUMIRA and the liver enzyme elevations is not clear. In a controlled Phase 3 trial of HUMIRA in patients with polyarticular JIA who were 4 to 17 years, ALT elevations ≥ 3 x ULN occurred in 4.4% of HUMIRA-treated patients and 1.5% of control-treated patients (ALT more common than AST); liver enzyme test elevations were more frequent among those treated with the combination of HUMIRA and MTX than those treated with HUMIRA alone. In general, these elevations did not lead to discontinuation of HUMIRA treatment. No ALT elevations ≥ 3 x ULN occurred in the open-label study of HUMIRA in patients with polyarticular JIA who were 2 to <4 years. In controlled Phase 3 trials of HUMIRA (initial doses of 160 mg and 80 mg, or 80 mg and 40 mg on Days 1 and 15, respectively, followed by 40 mg every other week) in adult patients with CD with a control period duration ranging from 4 to 52 weeks, ALT elevations ≥ 3 x ULN occurred in 0.9% of HUMIRA-treated patients and 0.9% of control-treated patients. In the Phase 3 trial of HUMIRA in pediatric patients with Crohn's disease which evaluated efficacy and safety of two body weight based maintenance dose regimens following body weight based induction therapy up to 52 weeks of treatment, ALT elevations ≥ 3 x ULN occurred in 2.6% (5/192) of patients, of whom 4 were receiving concomitant immunosuppressants at baseline; none of these patients discontinued due to abnormalities in ALT tests. In controlled Phase 3 trials of HUMIRA (initial doses of 160 mg and 80 mg on Days 1 and 15 respectively, followed by 40 mg every other week) in patients with UC with control period duration ranging from 1 to 52 weeks, ALT elevations ≥3 x ULN occurred in 1.5% of HUMIRA-treated patients and 1.0% of control- treated patients. In controlled Phase 3 trials of HUMIRA (initial dose of 80 mg then 40 mg every other week) in patients with Ps with control period duration ranging from 12 to 24 weeks, ALT elevations ≥ 3 x ULN occurred in 1.8% of HUMIRA-treated patients and 1.8% of control-treated patients. In controlled trials of HUMIRA (initial doses of 160 mg at Week 0 and 80 mg at Week 2, followed by 40 mg every week starting at Week 4), in subjects with HS with a control period duration ranging from 12 to 16 weeks, ALT elevations ≥ 3 x ULN occurred in 0.3% of HUMIRA-treated subjects and 0.6% of control- treated subjects. In controlled trials of HUMIRA (initial doses of 80 mg at Week 0 followed by 40 mg every other week starting at Week 1) in patients with uveitis with an exposure of 165.4 PYs and 119.8 PYs in HUMIRA-treated and control-treated patients, respectively, ALT elevations ≥ 3 x ULN occurred in 2.4% of HUMIRA-treated patients and 2.4% of control-treated patients. Immunogenicity Patients in Studies RA-I, RA-II, and RA-III were tested at multiple time points for antibodies to adalimumab during the 6- to 12-month period. Approximately 5% (58 of 1062) of adult RA patients receiving HUMIRA developed low-titer antibodies to adalimumab at least once during treatment, which were neutralizing in vitro. Patients treated with concomitant methotrexate (MTX) had a lower rate of antibody development than patients on HUMIRA monotherapy (1% versus 12%). No apparent correlation of antibody development to adverse reactions was observed. With monotherapy, patients receiving every other week dosing may develop antibodies more frequently than those receiving weekly dosing. In patients receiving the recommended dosage of 40 mg every other week as monotherapy, the ACR 20 response was lower among antibody-positive patients than among antibody-negative patients. The long-term immunogenicity of HUMIRA is unknown. In patients with polyarticular JIA who were 4 to 17 years of age, adalimumab antibodies were identified in 16% of HUMIRA-treated patients. In patient s receiving concomitant MTX, the incidence was 6% compared to 26% with HUMIRA monotherapy. In patients with polyarticular JIA who were 2 to <4 years of age or 4 years of age and older weighing <15 kg, adalimumab antibodies were identified in 7% (1 of 15) of HUMIRA-treated patients, and the one patient was receiving concomitant MTX. In patients with AS, the rate of development of antibodies to adalimumab in HUMIRA-treated patients was comparable to patients with RA. In patients with PsA, the rate of antibody development in patients receiving HUMIRA monotherapy was comparable to patients with RA; however, in patients receiving concomitant MTX the rate was 7% compared to 1% in RA. In adult patients with CD, the rate of antibody development was 3%. In pediatric patients with Crohn's disease, the rate of antibody development in patients receiving HUMIRA was 3%. However, due to the limitation of the assay conditions, antibodies to adalimumab could be detected only when serum adalimumab levels were < 2 mcg/mL. Among the patients whose serum adalimumab levels were < 2 mcg/mL (approximately 32% of total patients studied), the immunogenicity rate was 10%. In patients with moderately to severely active UC, the rate of antibody development in patients receiving HUMIRA was 5%. However, due to the limitation of the assay conditions, antibodies to adalimumab could be detected only when serum adalimumab levels were < 2 mcg/mL. Among the patients whose serum adalimumab levels were < 2 mcg/mL (approximately 25% of total patients studied), the immunogenicity rate was 20.7%. In patients with Ps, the rate of antibody development with HUMIRA monotherapy was 8%. However, due to the limitation of the assay conditions, antibodies to adalimumab could be detected only when serum adalimumab levels were < 2 mcg/mL. Among the patients whose serum adalimumab levels were < 2 mcg/mL (approximately 40% of total patients studied), the immunogenicity rate was 20.7%. In Ps patients who were on HUMIRA monotherapy and subsequently withdrawn from the treatment, the rate of antibodies to adalimumab after retreatment was similar to the rate observed prior to withdrawal. In subjects with moderate to severe HS, the rate of anti-adalimumab antibody development in subjects treated with HUMIRA was 6.5%. However, because of the limitation of the assay conditions, antibodies to adalimumab could be detected only when serum adalimumab levels were < 2 mcg/mL. Among subjects who stopped HUMIRA treatment for up to 24 weeks and in whom adalimumab serum levels subsequently declined to < 2 mcg/mL (approximately 22% of total subjects studied), the immunogenicity rate was 28%. In patients with non-infectious uveitis, anti-adalimumab antibodies were identified in 4.8% (12/249) of patients treated with adalimumab. H owever, due to the limitation of the assay conditions, antibodies to adalimumab could be detected only when serum adalimumab levels were < 2 mcg/mL. Among the patients whose serum adalimumab levels were < 2 mcg/mL (approximately 23% of total patients studied), the immunogenicity rate was 21.1%. Using an assay which could measure an anti-adalimumab antibody titer in all patients, titers were measured in 39.8% (99/249) of non-infectious uveitis patients treated with adalimumab. No correlation of antibody development to safety or efficacy outcomes was observed. The data reflect the percentage of patients whose test results were considered positive for antibodies to adalimumab or titers, and are highly dependent on the assay. The observed incidence of antibody (including neutralizing antibody) positivity in an assay is highly dependent on several factors including assay sensitivity and specificity, assay methodology, sample handling, timing of sample collection, concomitant medications, and underlying disease. For these reasons, comparison of the incidence of antibodies to adalimumab with the incidence of antibodies to other product s may be misleading. Other Adverse Reactions Rheumatoid Arthritis Clinical Studies The data described below reflect exposure to HUMIRA in 2468 patients, including 2073 exposed for 6 months, 1497 exposed for greater than one year and 1380 in adequate and well-controlled studies (Studies RA-I, RA-II, RA-III, and RA-IV). HUMIRA was studied primarily in placebo-controlled trials and in long-term follow up studies for up to 36 months duration. The population had a mean age of 54 years, 77% were female, 91% were Caucasian and had moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis. Most patients received 40 mg HUMIRA every other week. Table 1 summarizes reactions reported at a rate of at least 5% in patients treated with HUMIRA 40 mg every other week compared to placebo and with an incidence higher than placebo. In Study RA-III, the types and frequencies of adverse reactions in the second year open-label extension were similar to those observed in the one-year double-blind portion. Table 1. Adverse Reactions Reported by ≥5% of Patients Treated with HUMIRA During Placebo-Controlled Period of Pooled RA Studies (Studies RA-I, RA-II, RA-III, and RA-IV) HUMIRA 40 mg subcutaneous Every Other Week Placebo Adverse Reaction (Preferred Term) (N=705) (N=690) Respiratory Upper respiratory infection 17% 13% Sinusitis 11% 9% Flu syndrome 7% 6% Gastrointestinal Nausea 9% 8% Abdominal pain 7% 4% Laboratory Tests* Laboratory test abnormal 8% 7% Hypercholesterolemia 6% 4% Hyperlipidemia 7% 5% Hematuria 5% 4% Alkaline phosphatase increased 5% 3% Other Headache 12% 8% Rash 12% 6% Accidental injury 10% 8% Injection site reaction ** 8% 1% Back pain 6% 4% Urinary tract infection 8% 5% Hypertension 5% 3% * Laboratory test abnormalities were reported as adverse reactions in European trials ** Does not include injection site erythema, itching, hemorrhage, pain or swelling Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis Clinical Studies In general, the adverse reactions in the HUMIRA-treated patients in the polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) trials (Studies JIA-I and JIA-II) were similar in frequency and type to those seen in adult patients [see Warnings and Precautions and Adverse Reactions]. Important findings and differences from adults are discussed in the following paragraphs. In Study JIA-I, HUMIRA was studied in 171 patients who were 4 to 17 years of age, with polyarticular JIA. Severe adverse reactions reported in the study included neutropenia, streptococcal pharyngitis, increased aminotransferases, herpes zoster, myositis, metrorrhagia, and appendicitis. Serious infections were observed in 4% of patients within approximately 2 years of initiation of treatment with HUMIRA and included cases of herpes simplex, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, pharyngitis, and herpes zoster. In Study JIA-I, 45% of patients experienced an infection while receiving HUMIRA with or without concomitant MTX in the first 16 weeks of treatment. The types of infections reported in HUMIRA-treated patients were generally similar to those commonly seen in polyarticular JIA patient s who are not treated with TNF blockers. Upon initiation of treatment, the most common adverse reactions occurring in this patient population treated with HUMIRA were injection site pain and injection site reaction (19% and 16%, respectively). A less commonly reported adverse event in patients receiving HUMIRA was granuloma annulare which did not lead to discontinuation of HUMIRA treatment. In the first 48 weeks of treatment in Study JIA-I, non-serious hypersensitivity reactions were seen in approximately 6% of patients and included primarily localized allergic hypersensitivity reactions and allergic rash. In Study JIA-I, 10% of patients treated with HUMIRA who had negative baseline anti-dsDNA antibodies developed positive titers after 48 weeks of treatment. No patient developed clinical signs of autoimmunity during the clinical trial. Approximately 15% of patients treated with HUMIRA developed mild- to-moderate elevations of creatine phosphokinase (CPK) in Study JIA-I. Elevations exceeding 5 times the upper limit of normal were observed in several patients. CPK levels decreased or returned to normal in all patients. Most patients were able to continue HUMIRA without interruption. In Study JIA-II, HUMIRA was studied in 32 patients who were 2 to <4 years of age or 4 years of age and older weighing <15 kg with polyarticular JIA. The safety profile for this patient population was similar to the safety profile seen in patients 4 to 17 years of age with polyarticular JIA. In Study JIA-II, 78% of patients experienced an infection while receiving HUMIRA. These included nasopharyngitis, bronchitis, upper respiratory tract infection, otitis media, and were mostly mild to moderate in severity. Serious infections were observed in 9% of patients receiving HUMIRA in the study and included dental caries, rotavirus gastroenteritis, and varicella. In Study JIA-II, non-serious allergic reactions were observed in 6% of patients and included intermittent urticaria and rash, which were all mild in severity. Psoriatic Arthritis and Ankylosing Spondylitis Clinical Studies HUMIRA has been studied in 395 patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA) in two placebo-controlled trials and in an open label study and in 393 patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) in two placebo-controlled studies. The safety profile for patients with PsA and AS treated with HUMIRA 40 mg every other

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